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THE DARK AGES                           115

Orleans; and from this time forward the responsibility of the
Church for the maintenance and conduct of elementary and
grammar schools everywhere was definitely recognized in a long
series of enactments of Church Councils. The General Council
of 826 under Pope Eugenius, for example, enjoined that " in
bishops' sees and in other places where necessary, care and
diligence should be exhibited in the appointment of masters
and doctors to teach faithfully grammar and the liberal arts,
because in them especially God's commands are made clear and

These decrees, it is to be noted, presuppose the existence of
Church schools. Their object is not the creation of a new system,
but the improvement and extension of one already established.
As a matter of fact, there is abundant evidence to show that by the
end of the Eighth Century (when Theodulph and Charlemagne
were prescribing universal education) all the cathedrals and
collegiate churches had a song school and a grammar school
associated with them, and that the song school was no longer a
purely professional school for the training of choristers, but an
elementary school as well; and the grammar school in like fashion
no longer merely preparatory for theological study, but an institu-
tion in which the future clergy received a general education
in company with all the professional classes. In many of the
humbler parish churches, further, there were song schools, some-
times taught by the priests themselves, which served for the
popular education.

This expansion of the functions of the Church schools naturally
brought about very considerable changes in their organization.
At first the bishops were themselves the teachers. Thus Theodore
of Tarsus, the great archbishop appointed to the see of Canterbury
in 668, whose educational work gave England a pre-eminence in
education which it retained for more than a century, went about
the whole country in company with his friend Hadrian teaching
everywhere* " And because both men were abundantly learned
in sacred and in profane literature alike," Bede tells us,*
" streams of saving knowledge flowed from them to irrigate
the hearts of the crowds of disciples who gathered around them,
so that with the volumes of the sacred text they instructed their
hearers in the art of metre, in astronomy and in ecclesiastical

* iv, a.